Absence Seizures - is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are caused by abnormal neuronal discharge in the brain — the "wires" of the
brain's electrical circuitry get crossed and discharge abnormally. Absence seizures are characterized by impairment of consciousness or
posture, and usually last only a few seconds. This type of seizure is more common in those under age 20.

ADHD and ADD - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic neurobehavioral syndrome. ADHD manifests as inattention,
impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The term attention-deficit disorder (ADD) refers to the condition without hyperactivity.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also called Lou Gherig’s disease, is a progressive,
neuromuscular disease that weakens and eventually destroys motor neurons.

Autism – (also called autistic spectrum disorder) is a lifelong disorder that causes abnormal neurological development. Autism causes
impaired social interaction, communication difficulties, and restricted or repetitive activities and interests. Patients ususally show signs by
the age of 3.

Autonomic Neuropathy – is a group of symptoms caused by damage to nerves supplying the internal body structures that regulate
functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, bowel and bladder emptying, and digestion.


Back Pain – is defined as pain in the upper, middle or lower back due to an unknown causes.

Balance problems - abnormal balance may be caused by problems with the inner ear, the nerves in the feet, or certain conditions
affecting the brain.

Basilar Migraine - Basilar Artery Migraine (BAM) is a subtype of "migraine with aura" in the new IHS classification scheme. During a
basilar migraine, a person may experience balance problems or confusion along with the headache.

Bell’s Palsy - is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerve, the nerve that controls muscle movement on one side of the face. The
condition causes drooping on the affected side, and individuals may not be able to close the eye and may experience tearing, drooling
and hypersensitive hearing. Although Bell's palsy is unsettling and inconvenient, it is typically not indicative of a serious health problem
and in most cases completely resolves itself.

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo - (BPPV) is an inner ear problem that results in short lasting, but severe, room-spinning vertigo.

Brachial Plexopathy - Brachial plexopathy is decreased movement or sensation in the arm and shoulder, caused by impaired function of
the brachial plexus (a bundle of nerves that control sensation and movement of the arm).  


Carotid Artery disease - The carotid arteries run on each side of the neck and supply the brain with blood. They may, over time, become
narrowed, which can lead to mini-strokes (transient ischaemic attacks) or a full blown stroke.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the hand, becomes
pressed or squeezed at the wrist. Symptoms include pain, numbness in the fingers, or sometimes weakness in the hand.

Central Sleep Apnea - Central Sleep Apnea, which is less common than Obstructive Sleep Apnea, occurs when the brain fails to send the
appropriate signals to the breathing muscles to initiate respirations.

Cerebral Infarction - also known as a stroke, it occurs when part of the brain becomes damaged by either a loss of blood flow or a
hemorrhage into the brain.

Cerebral Palsy - a broad term used to represent a set of chronic disorders impairing movement control that generally appear during the
first several years of life.

Cervical Dystonia - is characterized by involuntary movements of the head as a result of muscle spasms in the neck and shoulders. These
spasms can cause the head to turn, jerk or pull to one side (rotational), towards the shoulder (laterocollis), forward (anterocollis) or
backward (retrocollis).

Cervical spine disease - the symptoms of cervical spine disease include pain, deformity, decrease in motion, numbness, tingling and
paralysis. These symptoms vary from patient to patient, but pain is the most common and most reported symptom.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) - a neurological disorder that causes damage to the peripheral nerves, which carry signals from the
brain and spinal cord to muscles, and bring signals from the arms and legs to the brain. CMT is an inherited form of neuropathy.

Chorea - Chorea is an irregular, rapid, uncontrolled, involuntary, excessive movement that seems to move randomly from one part of the
body to another. The affected child often appears fidgety or restless and unable to sit still.

CIDP - Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a neurological disorder characterized by progressive weakness
and impaired sensory function in the legs and arms.

Circadian rhythm disorders - One fourth of all chronic sleep disorders are the result of a mismatch between the body’s internal clock and
the external 24-hour schedule. These sleep-timing problems are called circadian rhythm sleep disorders because ‘circadian’ describes
the body’s daily sleep/wake hormone regulation (Circadian is Latin for ‘about a day’).

Cluster headache - is a rare form of headache that usually begins in adulthood. Patients experience severe throbbing, claw-like, or boring
pain usually on one side of the face; in, around, or behind the eye; and occasionally reaching to the back of the neck. This pain may be
accompanied by red and tearing eyes, a drooping or swollen eyelid on the affected side of the face, and nasal congestion. Cluster
headache is an uncommon ailment affecting only about 0.1 - 0.3% of the population. It is often confused with migraine disease whose
sufferers total about 13%.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome - is pressure on the ulnar nerve behind the funny bone causing numbness and tingling in the ring and small
fingers of the hand.  


Dementia - refers to a loss of cognitive function (cognition) due to changes in the brain caused by disease or trauma. The changes may
occur gradually or quickly; and how they occur may determine whether dementia is reversible or irreversible.

Demyelinating Disorders - A medical condition where the myelin sheath is damaged. The myelin sheath surrounds nerves and is
responsible for the transmission of impulses to the brain. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness, vision loss or balance problems.
See also Multiple Sclerosis.

Developmental delay - is when a child does not reach their developmental milestones at the expected times. It is an ongoing, major delay
in the process of development. If a child is slightly or only temporarily lagging behind, that is not called developmental delay.

Dermatomyositis - is one of a group of acquired muscle diseases called inflammatory myopathies. It may cause weakness in the muscles
of the arms and legs.

Diabetic Neuropathy - the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after exclusion of
other causes. Diabetic neuropathy is classified into several syndromes, each with a distinct pattern of involvement of the peripheral
nerves; a patient often has multiple or overlapping syndromes.

Diplopia - Double vision (diplopia) is one of the most troublesome visual disorders a patient can experience. The ability to read, walk and
perform common activities is suddenly disrupted. The management of double vision may include prisms, therapy, eye muscle surgery and

Disequilibrium - The most common reason for disequilibrium, dizziness or vertigo is probably related to viral etiologies causing
inflammation around the labyrinthene nerve, which is called neuronitis, or involving the labyrinth itself, called labyrinthitis.

Dizziness - Dizziness may be experienced as lightheadedness, feeling like you might faint, being unsteady, loss of balance, or vertigo (a
feeling that you or the room is spinning or moving). Most causes of dizziness are not serious and either quickly resolve on their own or are
easily treated.

Double vision - see diplopia

Dystonia - is a neurologic movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive
movements or abnormal postures or positions.  


Encephalitis - generally means an inflammation of the brain, but it usually refers to brain inflammation caused by a virus. Encephalitis may
also be called acute viral encephalitis or aseptic encephalitis.

Epilepsy – is a neurological condition, which affects the nervous system. Epilepsy is also known as a seizure disorder. It is usually
diagnosed after a person has had at least two seizures that were not caused by some known medical condition like alcohol withdrawal or
extremely low blood sugar.

Essential Tremor – is a very common but complex neurologic movement disorder. It's called "essential" because in the past, it had no
known cause. It's not caused by another neurological condition or the side effect of a medication. ET usually affects the hands, but it may
also affect the head and neck (causing shaking), face, jaw, tongue, voice (causing a shaking or quivering sound), the trunk and, rarely, the
legs and feet.

Eye movement problems - Vision plays a significant role in balance. Approximately twenty percent of the nerve fibers from the eyes
interact with the vestibular system. There are a variety of visual dysfunctions that can cause, or associate with dizziness and balance
problems. Sometimes these are purely visual problems, and sometimes they are caused from other disorders such as stroke, head injury,
vestibular dysfunction, deconditioning, and decompensation.  


Facet syndrome - is a diagnosis for mechanical low back pain (LBP). The signs of a classic facet syndrome are: pain on lumbar
hyperextension and decreased range of motion in any plane but especially in extension and rotation, local facet tenderness, absence of
neurologic deficit or root tension signs; on lumbar flexion there may be relief, and straight-leg raising may or may not be normal.

Fasciculations - fasciculations represent spontaneous discharges from motor nerves and are not pathologic in isolation. In fact, many
people without muscle or nerve disease can experience fasciculations induced by exercise, lack of sleep, or too much caffeine.

Febrile seizures - Convulsions brought on by a fever in infants or small children. During a febrile seizure, a child often loses
consciousness and shakes, moving limbs on both sides of the body. Less commonly, the child becomes rigid or has twitches in only a
portion of the body, such as an arm or a leg, or on the right or the left side only.

Femoral neuropathy - It occurs most often in people with type 2 diabetes. A pain may develop in the front of one thigh. Muscle weakness
follows, and the affected muscles waste away.

Foot pain - Pain or discomfort can be felt anywhere in the foot, including the heel, toes, arch, instep, sole, or ankles. See also ankle pain
and heel pain.

Friedreich’s ataxia - an inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system resulting in symptoms ranging from
muscle weakness and speech problems to heart disease. It is named after the physician Nicholas Friedreich, who first described the
condition in the 1860s.

Frontotemporal dementia – is a degenerative condition of the front (anterior) part of the brain. The areas of the brain affected by FTD—
the frontal and anterior temporal lobes—control reasoning, personality, movement, speech, social graces, language and some aspects of


Generalized seizures - are disruptions of both sides of the brain at once, and as a result, usually include an impairment or loss of

Guillain-Barre Syndrome - is an inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves — those outside the brain and spinal cord. It is
characterized by the rapid onset of weakness and, often, paralysis of the legs, arms, breathing muscles and face.  


Headache - A headache happens when pain-sensitive nerve fibers (called nociceptors) are triggered in the network of nerves that
extends over the scalp, face, and along the surface and the base of the brain.

Hemifacial spasm - a neuromuscular disorder characterized by frequent involuntary contractions of the muscles on one side of the face.
The disorder occurs in both men and women, although it more frequently affects middle-aged or elderly women. The first symptom is
usually an intermittent twitching of the eyelid muscle that can lead to forced closure of the eye.

Hereditary neuropathy – is an inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves. These nerves connect the brain and spinal cord to muscles
as well as sensory cells that detect touch, pain, and temperature.

Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis - is one of the degenerative diseases of the nervous system. In general, patients have a gradual
development of spastic weakness of the legs with increasing difficulty in walking.

Huntington’s disease - a fatal hereditary disease that destroys neurons in areas of the brain involved in the emotions, intellect, and
movement. The course of Huntington’s is characterized by jerking uncontrollable movement of the limbs, trunk, and face (chorea);
progressive loss of mental abilities; and the development of psychiatric problems.  


Idiopathic Central Nervous System Hypersomnolence - is excessive sleepiness. People with hypersomnolence, as opposed to fatigue,
often fall asleep unintentionally.

Inclusion Body Myositis - (IBM) is an inflammatory muscle disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting. The
disorder is similar to another inflammatory myopathy called polymyositis. IBM is often the diagnosis for cases of polymyositis that are
unresponsive to therapy, but IBM has its own distinctive features. The onset of muscle weakness in IBM is generally gradual (over months
or years).

Infantile Spasms - (IS) is a specific type of seizure. It may also be seen in an epilepsy syndrome of infancy and early childhood known as
West Syndrome. The onset is predominantly in the first year of life, typically between 3-6 months. The typical pattern of IS is a sudden
bending forward and stiffening of the body, arms, and legs; although there can also be arching of the torso.

Insomnia - Primary Insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems that are not directly associated with any other health condition
or problem. Secondary Insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems because of something else, such as a health condition
(like depression, heartburn, cancer, asthma, arthritis), pain, medication they are taking, or a substance they are using (like alcohol).

Intracerebral Hemorrhage - An intracerebral hemorrhage is bleeding in the brain caused by the rupture of a blood vessel within the head.

Involuntary Movements - Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement.
Abnormal fluency or speed of movement (dyskinesia) may involve excessive or involuntary movement (hyperkinesia) or slowed or absent
voluntary movement (hypokinesia).  




Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome - (LEMS) is a rare condition in which weakness results from an abnormality of acetylcholine (ACh)
release at the neuromuscular junction.

Language Delay - when a child’s language is developing in the right sequence, but at a slower rate. Speech and language disorder
describes abnormal language development.

Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophy - onset of the disease occurs anywhere from the first to the third decade of life. The initial muscles
affected are the proximal muscles of the pelvic and shoulder girdles. The progression of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy varies
considerably, as does the degree of disability.

Lou Gehrig’s Disease - see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Lumbar Spine Disease - The symptoms of lumbar spine disease include pain, deformity, decrease in motion, numbness, tingling, and
paralysis. These symptoms vary from patient to patient, but pain is the most common and most reported symptom.  


Macrocephaly - Increased head circumference is present when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than
expected for the age and background of the child.

Memory Loss - see dementia

Meniere’s Disease - also called idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops, is a disorder of the inner ear. Although the cause is unknown, it
probably results from an abnormality in the fluids of the inner ear. Ménière’s disease is a cause of dizziness originating in the inner ear.

Meningitis - is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. It is sometimes referred to as spinal
meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is
important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ.

Meralgia Paresthetica – (MP) is a disorder characterized by tingling, numbness, and burning pain in the outer side of the thigh. The
disorder is caused by compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it exits the pelvis. It more commonly occurs in men than
women, and is generally found in middle-aged or overweight individuals.

Microcephaly - is a rare, neurological disorder in which the circumference of the head is smaller than the average for the age and gender
of the infant or child. Microcephaly may be congenital (present at birth) or it may develop in the first few years of life. The disorder may
stem from a wide variety of conditions that cause abnormal growth of the brain, and is often a symptom of syndromes associated with
chromosomal abnormalities.

Migraine - Migraine is a form of headache that is severe and usually one sided, frequently associated with nausea and vomiting. This is
sometimes preceded by warning symptoms that usually affect the eyesight and are known as an “aura”.

Mitochondrial Disorders - are a group of neuromuscular diseases caused by damage to the mitochondria, which are small, energy-
producing structures found in every cell in the body that serve as the cells' "power plants." Nerve cells in the brain and muscles require a
great deal of energy, and thus appear to be particularly damaged when mitochondrial dysfunction occurs.

Movement Disorders - include a variety of neurological conditions that cause the person to have abnormal movements or difficulty with
voluntary movement. There are two basic categories of movement disorders: those exhibiting slow movement, or a lack of movement, and
those with excessive movement. The first category is called "hypokinetic,"; Parkinson's disease being a prime example. The second
category is called "hyperkinetic," such as tics, tremor or chorea (writhing movements).

Multiple Sclerosis – (MS) s a chronic, potentially debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain
and spinal cord. Doctors and researchers think the illness is probably an autoimmune disease, which means that your immune system
attacks part of your body as if it's a foreign substance. See also Demyelinating Disorders

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy - Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder characterized by asymmetrical muscle
weakness. Symptoms, which begin in the upper extremities (arms and hands), may include muscle weakness, atrophy, and cramping.
Fasciculations (involuntary contractions or twitching of a group of muscles) may also occur.

Muscle Cramps - occurs when your muscle tightens and shortens causing a sudden severe pain. Muscle cramps generally result from
overexertion and dehydration. When you don't have enough fluid in your system, it leads to an electrolyte imbalance that causes your
muscles to cramp up.

Muscle Diseases - the primary symptom of persons with muscle diseases is weakness, which is usually progressive, bilateral and often
involving muscles close to the trunk, i.e. hip and shoulder muscles. The person may notice difficulty in walking or running, climbing stairs,
getting up from sitting, carrying heavy loads, lifting or reaching above the shoulders. In infants and young children, this weakness may
show up as loss of tone, and delay in the ability to stand, walk or run.

Muscle jerking – or Myoclonus describes both a symptom and a disease. The disease myoclonus ("myo") muscle ("clonus") jerk,
describes a brief, sudden, singular, shock-like muscle contraction that refers to a condition characterized by myoclonus. Myoclonus arises
from damage to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord.

Muscle twitches - are fine movements of a small area of muscle that often affect the eyelids, calf, or thumb. They are normal and quite
common, often triggered by stress or anxiety.

Muscle weakness - A reduction in the strength of one or more muscles. The feeling of weakness may be subjective (the person feels
weak, but has no measurable loss of strength) or concrete (measurable loss of strength). Weakness may be generalized (total body
weakness) or localized to a specific area, side of the body, limb, and so on.

Muscular Dystrophy - (MD) are a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal
muscles that control movement. There are many forms of muscular dystrophy, some noticeable at birth (congenital muscular dystrophy),
others in adolescence (Becker MD), but the 3 most common types are Duchenne, facioscapulohumeral, and myotonic.

Myasthenia Gravis – (MG) is the most common primary disorder of neuromuscular transmission. The usual cause is an acquired
immunological abnormality, but some cases result from genetic abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction.

Myelopathy - a disease involving the spinal cord. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness or bowel/bladder control problems.

Myopathies - diseases that affect muscles connected to bones (called skeletal muscles), such as the biceps in the upper arm and the
quadriceps in the thigh. Myopathies can be caused by inherited genetic defects (e.g., muscular dystrophies), and endocrine, inflammatory
(e.g., polymyositis), and metabolic disorders.

Myotonic dystrophy - is an inherited disorder in which the muscles contract but have decreasing power to relax. With this condition, the
muscles also become weak and waste away. Myotonic dystrophy can cause hair loss and cataracts.  


Narcolepsy - is a type of sleep disorder. The disease is principally characterized by an overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and fatigue.

Neck pain - is usually due to degenerative changes that occur in the neck, or strain in the muscles of the neck.

Neuralgia - pain caused by nerve damage or compression.

Neurocutaneous Disorders - are conditions that involve both skin and brain producing some type of "birthmark" or skin lesion and
neurologic involvement so that seizures, developmental motor or cognitive problems are present.

Neurofibromatosis - are genetic disorders of the nervous system that primarily affect the development and growth of neural (nerve) cell
tissues. These disorders cause tumors to grow on nerves and produce other abnormalities such as skin changes and bone deformities.
Although many affected persons inherit the disorder, between 30 and 50 percent of new cases arise spontaneously through mutation
(change) in an individual's genes.

Neuropathy - a disease of the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness or pain.

Numbness - (or Paresthesias) are abnormal sensations, often described as numbness, prickling, or tingling, usually felt along the


Obstructive Sleep Apnea - complete obstruction of the airway during sleeping. The site of obstruction in most patients is the soft palate,
extending to the region at the base of the tongue. There are no rigid structures, such as cartilage or bone, in this area to hold the airway

Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy - is a neurodegenerative illness that causes certain brain areas to shrink. This condition can be inherited but
it most commonly affects people without a known family history (sporadic form). Sporadic cases tend to affect people in their 50s while
familial cases usually start earlier.

Ophthalmoplegia - is a paralysis or weakness of one or more of the muscles that control eye movement.

Optic neuritis - (ON) is an inflammation, with accompanying demyelination, of the Optic Nerve (Cranial Nerve II) serving the retina of the
eye. It is a variable condition and can present with any of the following symptoms: blurring of vision, loss of visual acuity, loss of some or all
color vision, complete or partial blindness and pain behind the eye.  


Parkinsonism - A disorder similar to Parkinson's disease, but caused by the effects of a medication or another disorder. Secondary
Parkinsonism may be caused by disorders such as a stroke, encephalitis, or meningitis; or medications.

Parkinson’s Disease - is a brain disorder that occurs when certain nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra
die or become impaired. Normally, these cells produce a vital chemical known as dopamine. Dopamine allows smooth, coordinated
function of the body's muscles and movement. When approximately 80% of the dopamine-producing cells are damaged, the symptoms of
Parkinson disease appear. The key signs of Parkinson disease are tremor (shaking), slowness of movement, rigidity (stiffness), and
difficulty with balance.

Parkinson’s plus syndrome - is a term used to describe numerous disorders characterized by parkinsonian features (rigidity, slow
movements, tremor) plus other neurological signs such as incoordination of gait, muscle wasting, or autonomic disturbances.

Paresthesias- is an abnormal touch sensations, such as burning or prickling, that occur without an outside stimulus.

Paroxysmal hemicrania - Headaches similar to cluster headaches but the pain is shorter in duration lasting typically 2-30 minutes. The
headaches occur on average more than 5 times a day.

Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep (PLMS) - is a disorder characterized by periodic episodes of repetitive and highly stereotyped limb
movements that occur during sleep. PLMD is believed to be related to restless legs syndrome.

Peroneal Neuropathy - a common cause of "footdrop", (weakness in the ankle).

Petit mal seizures – (also known as absence seizure) is a type of seizure that most often occurs in children. An abnormal electrical
discharge in the brain causes seizures. Other types of seizures include grand mal seizure and temporal lobe seizure.

Pick’s disease - A disorder which produces deterioration in mental function caused by loss of brain tissue in discrete areas (focal
lesions). Pick's disease is marked by the presence of abnormalities in brain cells (Pick's bodies) that can be found in the affected areas
and elsewhere in the brain.

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy - (PSP) is a rare brain disorder that causes serious and permanent problems with control of gait and
balance. The most obvious sign of the disease is an inability to aim the eyes properly, which occurs because of lesions in the area of the
brain that coordinates eye movements.

Post-herpetic Neuralgia - is a painful condition affecting your nerve fibers and skin. It is a complication of shingles, a second outbreak of
the varicella-zoster virus, which initially causes chickenpox.

Polymyositis - is a disease of muscle featuring inflammation of the muscle fibers. The cause of the disease is not known. It begins when
white blood cells, the immune cells of inflammation, spontaneously invade muscles. The muscles affected are mostly those closest to the
trunk or torso.

Post-lumbar Puncture Headache – is a mild to severe headache that results from a lumbar puncture procedure.

Pseudotumor Cerebri - (PTC) is encountered most frequently in young, overweight women between the ages of 20 and 45. Headache is
the most common presenting complaint, occurring in more than 90 percent of cases. Dizziness, nausea, and vomiting may also be
encountered, but typically there are no alterations of consciousness or higher cognitive function.



Radiculopathy - is specifically describe as pain, and other symptoms like numbness, tingling, and weakness in your arms or legs that are
caused by a problem with your nerve roots. The nerve roots are branches of the spinal cord that carry signals to the rest of the body at
each level along the spine.

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder - Patients with rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD) act out dramatic and/or violent dreams
during rapid eye movement (REM) stage sleep. Another feature of RBD is shouting and grunting. RBD seems similar to other sleep
disorders that involve motor activity, like sleepwalking or periodic limb movement disorder.

Restless leg syndrome - is an overwhelming urge to move the legs usually caused by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations in the legs.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (also called Complex Regional Pain Disorder, or CRPD) - is a condition of burning pain, stiffness, swelling,
and discoloration of the hand.  


Seizure Disorders - here are two kinds of seizure disorders: an isolated, nonrecurrent attack, such as may occur during a febrile illness or
after head trauma, and epilepsy—a recurrent, paroxysmal disorder of cerebral function characterized by sudden, brief attacks of altered
consciousness, motor activity, sensory phenomena, or inappropriate behavior caused by excessive discharge of cerebral neurons.

Sciatica - Sciatica is the term given to pain down the leg, which is caused by irritation of the main nerve into the leg, the sciatic nerve. This
pain tends to be caused where the nerves pass through and emerge from the lower bones of the spine (lumbar vertebrae).

Sleep Apnea - is a disorder that commonly afflicts more than 12 million people in the United States. It takes its name from the Greek word
apnea, which means "without breath." People with sleep apnea literally stop breathing repeatedly during their sleep, often for a minute or
longer and as many as hundreds of times during a single night.

Sleep Disorders – any number of disorders involving the inability for a restful nights sleep including Sleep Apnea, Restless Leg
Syndrome, Narcolepsy, Insomnia, Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Periodic Limb Movements (PLMS), Parasomnias, and Jet Lag.

Sleep Talking - is the utterance of speech or sounds during sleep without awareness of the event.

Sleep Terrors – (also called night terrors) exist when a person, usually a child, awakens from a dream crying or screaming, they may be
experiencing sleep terror disorder. Usually the person is difficult to wake-up and the episode may last several minutes. Once awakened,
the individual is confused and finds it difficult to relay the detail of his/her dream. Sleep terror usually only occurs once per night.
Sometimes the person experiencing a sleep terror will attempt to punch or swing his/her fists at others. Interference may lengthen the

Snoring – noisy sounds when sleeping occur when there is an obstruction to the free flow of air through the passages at the back of the
mouth and nose. This area is the collapsible part of the airway (see illustration) where the tongue and upper throat meet the soft palate
and uvula. Snoring occurs when these structures strike each other and vibrate during breathing.

Spinal cord injury - (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling. Frequent causes of
damage are trauma (car accident, gunshot, falls, etc.) or disease (polio, spina bifida, Friedreich's Ataxia, etc.). The spinal cord does not
have to be severed in order for a loss of functioning to occur. In fact, in most people with SCI, the spinal cord is intact, but the damage to it
results in loss of functioning.

Spinal Stenosis - A condition due to narrowing of the spinal cord causing nerve pinching which leads to persistent pain in the buttocks,
limping, lack of feeling in the lower extremities, and decreased physical activity.

Stroke - see Cerebral Infarction  


Tardive Dyskinesia - is a term used to describe a syndrome occurring as a result of treatment with medications that block the receptors
for the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is involved in producing movement. If the receptors are blocked over a period
of time, some individuals may develop uncontrolled involuntary movements.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome – is a nerve compression syndrome characterized by a mechanical impingement of one or more of the
peripheral nerves about the foot and ankle.

Temporal Arteritis - also known as giant cell arteritis, is an inflammatory condition affecting the medium-sized blood vessels that supply
the head, eyes, and optic nerves. The disease usually affects those over 60 years of age and causes the vessels in the temple and scalp
to become swollen and tender. Women are approximately 4 times more likely to suffer from this disease then men.

Tics - are involuntary movements or vocalizations, of a repetitive nature. They are common in childhood - about one in thirty children will
exhibit some sort of tic at some time during childhood. They are usually of fairly short duration over time (less than a year), and consist of
excessive blinking, facial grimacing, or vocalizations such as frequent coughing, sniffing, clearing the throat, and so forth. Tics may
sometimes be the root cause of frustrating searches for the source of a nagging little cough in a child.

Tonic-Clonic Seizures – generalized seizures involve the whole brain and the most common generalized seizure is called a tonic-clonic
seizure. When a TCS occurs, the person goes stiff (tonic), has jerking of the extremities (clonic), falls to the ground and then they will
remain still before slowly coming round.

Torticollis - see Cervical Dystonia

Tourette’s Syndrome - is an inherited, neurological disorder characterized by repeated and involuntary body movements (tics) and
uncontrollable vocal sounds going on for more than one year. In a minority of cases, the vocalizations can include socially inappropriate
words and phrases-called coprolalia. These outbursts are neither intentional nor purposeful. Involuntary symptoms can include eye
blinking, repeated throat clearing or sniffing, arm thrusting, kicking movements, shoulder shrugging or jumping.

Transient Global Amnesia – is a passing episode of short-term memory loss without other signs or symptoms of neurological impairment.
In transient global amnesia (TGA) the individual does not lose consciousness, but does lose the ability to form new lasting memories.
Motor function is not affected. The individual may be disoriented to place and time, may recognize that something is wrong, and may
become distressed at this realization.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) - A neurological event with the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but which go away within a short period of
time. Also called a mini-stroke, a TIA is due to a temporary lack of adequate blood and oxygen (ischemia) to the brain. This is often
caused by the narrowing (or, less often, ulceration) of the carotid arteries (the major arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain).
TIAs typically last 2 to 30 minutes and can produce problems with vision, dizziness, weakness or trouble speaking.

Transverse Myelitis - is a demyelinating (loss of the fatty tissue around the nerves) disorder of the spinal cord. It may occur alone or in
combination with demyelination in other parts of the nervous system. Onset of the disorder is sudden. Symptoms may include spinal cord
dysfunction, muscle spasms, a general feeling of discomfort, headache, loss of appetite, and numbness or tingling in the legs.

Traumatic Brain Injury - results from rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain, including shearing (tearing) of nerve fibers, contusion
(bruising) of the brain tissue against the skull, brain stem injuries, and edema (swelling).

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - is neurovascular symptoms in the upper extremities due to pressure on the nerves and vessels in the thoracic
outlet area. The specific structures compressed are usually the nerves of the branchial plexus and occasionally the subclavian artery or
subclavian vein.

Tremors - a rhythmic, involuntary, oscillatory movement of a body part, is the most common movement disorder. Tremors are classified as
rest or action tremors. Rest tremor occurs when the affected body part is completely supported against gravity. Action tremors are
produced by voluntary muscle contraction.

Trigeminal Neuralgia - is a disorder of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like
pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed to lips, eyes, nose, scalp, forehead, upper jaw, and lower jaw.

Tuberous Sclerosis - is a rare genetic, neurological disorder primarily characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and skin and eye
lesions. In some cases, neurobehavioral problems may also occur. Individuals with tuberous sclerosis may experience none or all of the
symptoms with varying degrees of severity.


Ulnar Neuropathy - is a condition caused by compression of the ulnar nerve, usually at the elbow. This is the second most common nerve
entrapment after carpal tunnel syndrome. The elbow is the most vulnerable point of the ulnar nerve: here it is superficial, fixed and crosses
a joint. The cause of most cases is unknown. However, there may be a history of elbow fracture, dislocation, arthritis, or repeated minor


Vertebral Basilar Insufficiency - Vertebral arteries flow through the vertebral or spinal column, and join together to form the basilar artery at
the brain stem. Together, they are the principle arteries providing blood to the rear portions of the brain including the occipital lobe,
cerebellum and brain stem. Vertebral-basilar insufficiency (VBI) refers to a condition in which blood flow to these arteries is restricted or

Vertigo - Symptoms of vestibular impairment may include dizziness with a sense of movement, imbalance and nausea.


Weakness - is a reduction in the strength of one or more muscles resulting from a variety of conditions including metabolic, neurologic,
primary muscular diseases, and toxic disorders.

Wilson’s disease - is an inherited disorder in which excessive amounts of copper accumulate in the body. This rare disorder affects
approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Symptoms may include abnormal movements of the arms or legs.  

Neurological Issues   A to Z
A neurologist is a board-certified medical doctor or osteopath who has trained in the diagnosis and treatment
of nervous system disorders, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles.
Neurologists perform neurological examinations of the nerves of the head and neck; muscle strength and
movement; balance, ambulation, and reflexes; and sensation, memory, speech, language, and other cognitive
What is a Neurologist?
Common neurological tests:
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
The EEG records the brain’s continuous electrical activity through electrodes attached to the scalp. It is used to
help diagnose structural diseases of the brain and episodes such as seizures, fainting or blacking out. This test
is painless.

Electromyogram (EMG)
An EMG measures and records electrical activity from the muscles and nerves. This may be helpful in
determining the cause of pain, numbness, tingling or weakness in the muscles or nerves. Small needles are
inserted into the muscle and mild electrical shocks are given to stimulate the nerve. Activity is recorded during
the insertion, while the muscle is at rest and while the muscle contracts. Your examiner will determine how many
muscles need to be tested depending upon your symptoms.

Evoked potentials
This test records the brain’s electrical response to visual, auditory and sensory stimuli. This test is useful in
evaluating and diagnosing symptoms of dizziness, numbness and tingling, as well as some visual disorders.

Sleep studies
Involve tests that diagnose specific causes of sleep problems. To perform the tests, it is often necessary for a
patient to spend the night in a sleep laboratory. Brain wave activity, heart rate, electrical activity of the heart,
breathing and oxygen in the blood are all measured during the sleep test.
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